Saturday, December 27, 2014


   Guba Christmas Traditions
By Garrett Gelting 

Jaslickare - St. Clair, Pennsylvania
It’s hard to believe that when I was young and “the Gubas” group would come to the family house on Christmas Eve, January 6, I would run and hide because I was extremely afraid of Staryj. He was the oldest and wisest Guba, but sometimes, he scared the children. See, the funny thing is that Staryj was my cousin, but even knowing that didn’t help. I was brought up being scared by Staryj.  He wasn’t mean or anything, that’s just how it was. Before I go any further, I should clarify a few more things. For starters, the Gubas perform a reenactment of the story of the shepherds’ first encounter with the newborn Christ Child. When I say “the family house”, I really mean the house where my grandfather, Andrew Dudish, grew up in St. Clair, PA. He had lived in the house since 1912 and grew up there with all his brothers and sisters. Even though someone in the family still lived there, the house was more of a communal house for the whole family when it was Christmas time. Some family members passed away, some couldn’t make it because of other commitments, some had children, and some had married. Every year the number of family members, who came to holy supper, changed but it would range from the low-twenties to the mid-sixties. Because of the numerous people, mostly family, I considered everyone in the house to be my cousin.
Going with the Gubas is a family tradition. Almost every male in my family, at some point, was part of the Gubas, going all the way back to my grandfather in the 1920s (which makes this a 100 year old tradition in St. Michael the Archangel Orthodox Church, St. Clair, PA, and in our family.) I started off being what they called an “angel.” This is the person who carries the church that they use. The church is symbolic of Jesus and inside of it is a manger scene. The church is made of wood and weighs about 40 pounds. I would hear stories of how the church used to be concrete and weigh a lot more. Throughout the years I would slowly gain a little more responsibility. The shepherds are the ones who actually recite the pageant lines. Last, but not least to speak, is Staryj. All the Gubas or shepherds wear white robes with ribbons on them, tall cylinder crowns (made by my Mom’s Uncle Fred Sponenburg) on their heads and some carry staffs. Staryj wears an old white beard, a fur coat, and hat. He has a menacing look when you’re a young child if he’s trying to scare you. His staff is hung with big jingle bells, so when he bangs it on the floor, it makes a lot of noise. 

The first year I went out with the Gubas was definitely a different experience than what I expected. I thought it was just a group of guys who went house to house doing their little play and then hanging out for a little to talk to the people they knew. While it was this, there was much more to it. I assumed every house that they went to was like mine. At the family house, we had a large group of people with tons of food and the Gubas would stay for a while. What I didn’t know was that some houses only had a few people in them and at others only one person was there to hear our play. This was definitely a shock to me. One of the first things I remember is going into a house and a lady was on her deathbed. For someone who was only 15 at the time, this was hard to comprehend. It wasn’t until the next year when we walked past her house and didn’t go in, that I realized that she had passed. I talked with my family and they explained to me how important it was for the Gubas to come and do the play for them. The play only lasted a few minutes and only had a couple of songs, but this short, roughly five-minute play made the whole year for some of the people who would welcome us into their homes. 
Stephen Laychock as Guba
Over the years, some of the stops would change. Some people would move to a different house or move away. New stops were added if people changed houses or new people wanted us to come. On Christmas Eve, we usually went to about 12 to 17 houses. To me this seemed like a lot, but they would tell me that sometimes they had so many houses to go to that they would need two groups of Gubas. We would start off from the church at around 6:30 PM and for the rest of the night we would walk around going to each house and performing. We would finish up around midnight. 

On Christmas Eve my relatives would go the family house to eat the traditional Holy Supper (fish, pirohy, mushroom gravy, potatoes, prunes, beans, mushroom halupkis). Dinner would start and it was always children and the people going out with the Gubas who ate at the first table setting. This was because the Gubas needed to be fed in time to head out for the first day of going house to house. The second day, Christmas, was much more intense. On Christmas day we would go to about 20 to 25 houses. We would start around 1:00 in the afternoon and not finish until about midnight. 

The pageant begins when one of the shepherds walks into the house and starts by saying “Christos Razdajetsja”, to which the owner of the house says “Slavite Jeho”. In English this means “Christ is Born” and “Glorify Him”. The lead shepherd begins by saying to everyone in the house “Good people, I’m sorry to enter your home in such a rush. I am not alone, for I bring my brothers with me”. At this point everyone else walks into the house, except for the angel and maybe one or two other people. The angel is holding the church outside. The Guba and shepherds go into a conversation about who they are and from where they came. They also explain why they are there. A short song is sung at this point and the church is brought in and placed on a table or chair. Each shepherd bows down and prays to the baby Jesus inside the church. Usually during this time, young children will go up to the Guba and put change or a few dollars into a can that the Guba carries. This money goes to the church. The last person to kneel is Staryj. When he kneels down, the shepherds call him “stoddy” and he pretends, though not always pretends, to be an old man as he stands up. After this is done another song is sung. A shepherd thanks the people for allowing the Gubas into their home and then the final song is sung Mno haja ‘lit). For most of the time that I’ve been going out, this play is performed in part Rusyn and part English. In previous years, they would recite everything in Rusyn. Once the play is over, most people will welcome us into their homes for food and drink and give a donation for St. Michael’s Church. 

The type of food on the first day is different from the second day’s. Abiding by the tradition of not eating meat on Christmas Eve, most of the food is just desserts and drinks. A lot of the food we are offered are cookies, pies, or other meat-less snacks. Some people have other types of food like mushroom holubki, but they aren’t nearly as good as the real thing. Sometimes if there’s a large number of people in the house, we will stay for a while, but if it just a small number of people we might not stay as long. No matter what though, the Gubas are NEVER on time. People always want to know when we are coming to their house, but the only true way to know is when we actually arrive. On the first day, we walk from house to house because we are always in the town of St. Clair, PA. The second day is by far the best. For starters, there is meat halupki along with boilo (a mixture of whiskey fruit juices, honey, spices etc.), which are the staples at every house. Some years I’ll try to keep count of how many halupki I eat over the course of the day. Some houses we go to serve us full meals that they had left over from their dinners and some houses just offer us some drinks. This is a very long day so usually we schedule larger houses apart so we can actually eat around normal meal times. Because this day is longer and we travel to different towns, we have a van that we drive around to each house. This van has officially or unofficially, depending on to whom you talk, been named the Guba-Mobile. 
Almost every house we go to has boilo. To some people making boilo is an art form. All year long they think of different things they can do to tweak their recipe to make it better than the last year. Each person wants you to try their recipe and compare it to their neighbors’ or friends’ recipe from across town. Going around with the Gubas is a cultural experience. Seeing the Gubas is something so different that no one can ever understand unless they experience seeing the play themselves. When we are walking around, plenty of people have thought we were the KKK or saying that it’s too late for Halloween. I’ve tried to explain it to my friends, but it’s hard for them to understand what it is. The most important things I’ve obtained from the experience are religion, family, and friends. Religion and family have everything to do with it. The family tradition of being a Guba, my “cousins” going around as the Gubas with me, and all the people I see at the houses all make it a great time. Every year there are people whom we haven’t seen in a long time; some people haven’t seen each other for decades. The short time that we all spend togetheris an experience that not everyone is lucky enough to have. I’ll always remember singing the songs with my family and seeing the smiles on the faces of the people who welcome us into their homes. I hope I can make it back home next year. There is nothing else like it. 

Garrett Gelting is from Orwigsburg, Pennsylvania. The family house that is mentioned in the article is in Saint Clair, Pennsylvania. He is a graduate of Penn State University, and even though he hasn’t lived at home for a few years, he still manages to make it back to Saint Clair every year for “Russian Christmas”. He has been going with the Gubas since he was a teenager, so this will be almost a decade of going out.

Monday, March 10, 2014


Rich Laychock

While the C-RS has several highly visible leaders, there are a number of members whose invaluable contributions are made from behind the scenes.   Since 2000, Rich Laychock has been one of these members.

Shortly after joining the society, Rich became Membership Secretary.  He created a database of members.  He installed computers at the Cultural Center and instituted networking, dragging us into the 21st Century.  

Rich with his wife Michelle
Rich gave us the ability to conduct our meetings via teleconferencing.  This was not, as skeptics might suspect, just because he had to drive the 8-hour round- trip from Harrisburg to attend those meetings.  Or
because in those days board meetings would last for 4-5 hours.  He did it because he has engineering in his blood.  Rich is a hands-on leader.

As Chief Information Officer, naturally his improvements facilitated communications between the chapters and the National.  For the first time the chapters are able to distribute news of their events to the whole membership.

As Chief Financial Officer he has streamlined our bookkeeping and brought it up to date.  Our records and, consequently, our activities have a new transparency.

Currently Rich is also Chairman of the Cultural Center.  In 2013 he installed new windows in the basement.  He then made our much-discussed handicap ramp a reality.  Presently he is supervising creation of a handicapped restroom.  Its completion will permit us once again to host events.

Front left to right:  Hannah, Ricky, Kaylee
Back left to right:  Andre, Emilie, and Bohdana
A two-time graduate of Penn State, Rich holds a bachelor’s in Mechanical Engineering and a master’s in Finance.  As we have seen, his talents in these fields have served the C-RS well.  Taking a lesson from his dad, Rich has the ability to speak with anyone.  He is able to maintain good relations with our members despite the intensity with which some issues are debated.

Rich and his wife Michelle are the proud parents of five, plus a Ukrainian student, Bohdana, who is a cousin’s daughter.  Born in Pottsville, PA, Rich discovered that he is 100% Rusyn.  This took an epiphany.  

Rich's Dad John Laychock 
Though his mother was Byzantine Catholic, his father’s church was founded by Lemkos, eventually being absorbed into the Ukrainian Catholic Church.  This was even though, as his grandmother used to say, there was only one Ukrainian family belonging to their church.  They followed Rusyn customs, but thought they were Ukrainian.

Rich was in his 30s when he was given a copy of the very first printing of The New Rusyn Times.  He contacted Rich Custer, then went on the second C-RS Heritage Tour.  After such total immersion it became clear to Rich that he has been, is, and will be a Rusyn.

Wednesday, February 19, 2014


A typical morning at the Studium begins with breakfast offered from 7:30 in the cafeteria across from the dorm. Participants then go off to morning class which begins at 9. In weeks one and two, the first class session from Monday through Friday will be the history lectures offered by Professor Paul Robert Magocsi in English and by Valerii Padiak in Rusyn. In week three, the first class session each day will be the folklore lectures offered by Professor Patricia Krafcik in English and Professor Emeritus Mykola Mushynka in Rusyn. After lunch throughout the three weeks, beginning Rusyn-language students will have class with Marek Gaj and Patricia Krafcik, and intermediate and advanced students will meet for language study with Dr. Kveta Koporova. Instructors at the Studium are all devoted to working closely with you in broadening and deepening your understanding of Rusyn language, history, and culture. 

 Paul Robert Magocsi and Mykola Mušynka.    

Professor Magocsi is the world’s leading expert on Carpatho-Rusyn history. He is the holder of the Chair of Ukrainian Studies at the University of Toronto where he has created the most complete library of Carpatho-Rusyn-related scholarship and other materials in the world—a literal treasure-trove for scholars. He is a widely recognized and respected researcher, writer, and teacher, enormously energetic, sharp in terms of his critical thinking. When attending Professor Magocsi’s lectures, be ready to take voluminous notes from the start! His lectures will introduce you to the history of Carpatho-Rusyns from their beginnings to the present day. His style is to present his lecture and then to set aside 30-45 minutes for questions and answers. This lets him cover efficiently what he wants to convey, and then he is open to whatever questions might have arisen during the course of the lecture. Those Q&A sessions, by the way, are as exciting and informative as the lectures. You will definitely acquire a keen understanding of where our people came from and what forces shaped them through the centuries, and you’ll be able to share your new and tremendous body of knowledge with your family and community. 

Valerii Padiak and Patricia Krafcik
Valerii Padiak is a bright and enthusiastic scholar from Uzhhorod, Transcarpathia—just over the border from Slovakia in Ukraine. Like Professor Magocsi, he has been teaching at the Studium since its founding in 2009. He has also been teaching at the Institute of Rusyn Language and Culture at the University of Prešov. Padiak is steeped in the history and culture of Carpatho-Rusyns originating in Transcarpathia. He is a walking encyclopedia! Among other things, he is a publisher of books on Carpatho-Rusyns, a calling in which he has been involved for many years. He has worked hard developing educational opportunities for Rusyn kids in Transcarpathia, as well, and he has helped Studium participants in the past three years get in contact with their Rusyn roots in Transcarpathia. Padiak strongly encourages the American participants in the Studium to practice their Rusyn, and in his warm and animated way he is happy to encourage even simple conversations over meals in the cafeteria. 

Dr. Kveta Koporova teaches the intermediate/advanced Rusyn-language class. A serious scholar of language in her own right, she is the first doctoral candidate at the University of Prešov to produce a dissertation about the Rusyn language in the Rusyn language. Why is this important? Because in using the Rusyn language to express highly technical and sophisticated ideas, she has demonstrated that the language is indeed capable of vast and varied expression. In her language class, she works with participants who already speak Rusyn, usually having acquired their language in the home environment, and also with those who have had experience with other East Slavic languages such as Russian and Ukrainian. Koporova is a warm and hard-working scholar and instructor. She is, by the way, studying English on her own and will be happy to try a bit of English with you, I’m sure, next summer. 

Marek Gaj is a schoolteacher steeped in his Rusyn language and culture. For twelve years he has taught children Rusyn in a school in Medzilaborce. His experience will serve him well as he helps guide beginners in the basics of the Rusyn language. Like other teachers of Slavic languages, Marek is aware that such complex Slavic languages as Rusyn cannot be taught in three weeks, but he will offer an enjoyable introduction to the language through the learning of the alphabet, some basic grammar, simple phrases and sentences, and songs. 

Mykola Mushynka, a professor emeritus at Prešov University will offer folklore lectures in Rusyn. He is a truly unique personality who lived through the difficult era of Communist Czechoslovakia and suffered personal and professional setbacks during those years. Hailing from the village of Kurov in the Prešov Region, he himself grew up completely immersed in and actively practicing all the folklore traditions about which he has written and taught. He speaks Ukrainian and Russian perfectly, as well, but not English. I know, however, that he would be happy to meet the American participants and to talk with you—and there are usually folks who can help with interpretation on the spot. Professor Mushynka is in many ways larger than life. His warmth is palpable and his twinkling blue eyes match his sense of humor. He will be our guide when we attend an authentic Rusyn wedding in his native village of Kurov. He himself has participated as the starosta (best man/leader of the wedding traditions) in several such weddings, and he knows these traditions inside and out. This event is not to be missed. 

Anna Plishkova
Dr. Anna Plishkova is the organizer of the Studium and the head of the Institute of Rusyn Language and Culture at the University of Prešov. Her calm and collected personality belies the very dedicated hard worker within—the one whose strong and persistent efforts helped lead to the establishment of the Institute. She will open and close the Studium session and will be working behind the scenes to insure that all runs smoothly. She is also the liaison between the Studium and the university administration, an important role in which she serves to garner strategic support for the Institute and the Studium. Dr. Plishkova also completed her dissertation a few years ago on the Rusyn language written in Rusyn and defended the dissertation in Bratislava, Slovakia’s capital. She has written widely on the language, including a book available from the Carpatho-Rusyn Research Center translated into English and entitled Language and National Identity: Rusyns South of the Carpathians (East European Monographs, Columbia University Press, 2009). Along with one of Professor Magocsi’s many books, The People From Nowhere, Professor Plishkova’s book is well worth reading if you are interested in Carpatho-Rusyn history and culture. 

Finally, in week three of this summer’s Studium, I (Pat Krafcik) will give the afternoon lectures on selected topics in Carpatho-Rusyn folklore in English. I am an Associate Professor of Russian Language and Literature at The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington. I participated with Professor Magocsi in founding the Carpatho-Rusyn Research Center in 1978 and was the editor for most of the years of our publication of the Carpatho-Rusyn American Newsletter (1978-98). I have nurtured a passion for Slavic folklore for some decades now and offered lectures in selected topics in Rusyn folklore at the past three sessions of the Studium. My lectures are more like talks in which I invite participation from the students so that our sessions resemble a discussion over coffee—they are both serious and enjoyable, and full of information at the same time. Participant contributions enrich what I have to contribute. The learning works both ways, and I appreciate this. I will also be assisting Marek Gaj in his teaching of beginning Rusyn. For the first two weeks, while Marek is still finishing his academic year in Medzilaborce with his own pupils, I will work with the beginners during the first hour of class, practicing what Marek has taught us. During the second hour, Marek will arrive to introduce new material. In week three, he will teach the full class time, but I will be there to help with translating questions you might have for him. 

There are others connected with the work of the Institute of Rusyn Language and Culture and who will be present at the opening and closing ceremonies. Among them, Timea Veres, who speaks excellent English, will be a helpful liaison between participants and the Institute people. She is a fine historian in her own right and is a lovely individual who is willing to go the extra mile to help participants feel at home. You may also meet along the way others members of the staff of the Institute for Rusyn Language and Culture.  

We all hope to see you at the Studium this summer for three weeks of significant learning and unforgettable experiences. The deadline (somewhat flexible) for applying is March 1, 2014, and applications and more information are available at the Carpatho-Rusyn Society website. Please note that the arrival for participants from abroad is Saturday, June 14. Already on Sunday, June 15, we have our first excursion—a visit to the Svidník Open Air Museum and the Svidník Rusyn Folk Festival which celebrates its 60th anniversary this year.

Feel free to contact me with any questions you might have, at  

Written by Pat Krafcik

Tuesday, February 4, 2014


Kurova Ensemble
What is a typical day like at the Studium Carpato-Ruthenorum? What is the dorm like? What excursions lie ahead for this coming summer? This blog text will address these issues. 

But first: Before discussing the dorm and excursions, a quick note about an important question: Can a student registered at a North American college or university get college credit from attending the Studium? Yes. But here’s how this works: As in the case of many other study-abroad programs, the institution abroad does not itself award a certain number of credits. The awarding of credits—either semester or quarter credits—depends on the student’s home institution. What the Prešov University Studium organizers offer upon a student’s request is an official stamped document which states clearly what the program is and how many class hours the students attended for history, folklore, and language. The students then takes this document to their university’s Registrar who processes this information and determines the exact number of credits to be awarded. The student might also want to download the informational brochure already available at the C-RS website, print it out, and add it to that official document from the Studium so that their Registrar clearly understands what the program entailed. Every college and university has the right to assess study abroad programs on the basis of its own standards. Students who want credits should let the Studium organizers know from the start if they would like to get this document. 

A typical morning at the Studium begins from 7:30 to 9 in the cafeteria across from the dorm where participants will find a good breakfast. Then, off to morning class which starts at 9. The first week’s morning and afternoon class sessions this summer, 2014, will be divided up between the language lessons and the folklore lectures offered by Prešov University Professor Emeritus Mykola Mushynka in Rusyn and Professor Patricia Krafcik from The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington, in English. In weeks two and three, along with language classes, participants will attend history lectures by Prešov University Lecturer Valerii Padiak in Rusyn and the University of Toronto’s Professor Paul Robert Magocsi in English. More on the faculty and classes in the next blog. 

Meanwhile, what about the dorm, the cafeteria, and the excursions? 
The dorm rooms are suites of two “bedrooms,” each with two beds, and each suite has a toilet which is in a separate little cubby from the sink and shower. It has been possible for previous participants to ask for a bedroom for one person for a few extra dollars, and this may be the case again—so please write to the Studium organizers with your request (write to English-speaking Timea Veres at For stunning views of the surrounding town and countryside, go up to the top floor. From one side you can see the village of Kapušany, and if you look carefully, you can actually make out the ruins of Kapušany castle high up on a craggy hill. From another side of the dorm, you look down at the swiftly flowing Torysa River which runs through Prešov and offers a terrific walking and running trail for residents and visitors. Wifi is available in the rooms. There are two kitchens on each floor with a stove and a smattering of pots, dishes, and mugs, and each has an additional and larger refrigerator for residents to use. Some of us became proficient at using the European washing machine and dryer located in the kitchen areas; others simply washed out items of clothing by hand in Woolite or some other detergent and hung them on travel drying lines stretched across the room. Bring light summer clothing, and plan to dress in layers for the occasional cooler or rainy day. This writer found that washing these kinds of clothes by hand isn’t a problem at all. 

Kurova Ensemble
The cafeteria is located just across the parking lot from the dorm. Breakfast may include pastries and hearty bread, butter, and jam, sometimes sliced cheese and ham, at other times eggs and yogurt, and even granola. Lunch always starts with a delicious soup served family style, followed by a variety of dishes of meat and potatoes, some fish, some versions of baked dough. Dinner salads were also available at suppertime, as well, and this writer found that option to be nutritious and very welcome. The occasional serving of pyrohŷ is always a hit. Occasionally a dish served for lunch or for supper was a bit difficult for us to define, made of thick dough and other ingredients. A sense of humor definitely makes the experience of dealing with the food fun. You’ll have some amusing memories from this aspect of the program, but you’ll never go hungry. And with a visit to TESCO or the small grocery across from the dorm, you can always find a few snacks or pieces of fruit to supplement the cafeteria diet. If you have any special dietary needs, please let Timea Veres know right away. 

Excursions and special events this coming summer will include the Medzilaborce Festival of Culture and Sport; the Andy Warhol Museum of Modern Art; gravesites of famous Rusyns at Čertižno; a visit with young school kids at the Rusyn-language elementary school at Čabiny; walks around Prešov to the various places of worship and the Rusyn Museum; a play in Rusyn at the Alexander Dukhnovych Theater; a pysankŷ and a folksong workshop; a trip north into Poland to the town of Krynica to visit Lemko Rusyn sites, including the Nikifor Drovniak museum and a visit to a Rusyn Orthodox church along with famous and much beloved Lemko Rusyn poet Petro Trochanovsky; and an excursion to Kurov, the native village of Studium instructor and Prešov University professor emeritus Mykola Mushynka where Studium participants will—as they did last summer—experience a magnificent performance by the Kurov folk ensemble. This performance will replicate the springtime “Rusalia” festival replete with an authentic Rusyn wedding. Last summer’s participants were absolutely enthralled by this last visit. The village folk welcome us warmly, their ensemble is superb, the food is excellent, and the music will have us tapping our feet and dancing. 

Next blog text: Faculty and Classes.
Written by:  Patricia Krafcik.  Email:

Tuesday, January 14, 2014


The main building of Presov University

Are you considering participating in the Studium Carpato-Ruthenorum International Summer School for Rusyn Language and Culture? You may have questions about what the experience is going to offer, what it will be like to live for three weeks in Prešov, what the dorm and the cafeteria food are like, what a typical day offers, what the class sessions will be, what excursions are planned. In the course of two blog texts, we’ll offer some helpful information based on last summer’s experience and on what is in the works for this coming summer.

Prešov is a small but bustling city, typical for Central Europe with a large main square built on “Main Street” (“Hlavná ulica”) and surrounded by beautiful historical buildings and busy with people shopping, strolling, heading to work or home. An informational souvenir shop right on the square offers free small maps, which last summer’s participants discovered and found useful in identifying streets and sites in the city center, and your Studium organizers will point out this shop on a walking tour of the city early in your stay. The TESCO department store, also located nearby on Hlavná ulica offers all kinds of goods, including groceries, clothes, toiletries, and souvenirs.
The Orthodox Cathedral of St. Alexander Nevsky

On the main square is the striking Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Nicholas, and just down Hlavná ulica within easy walking distance is the Greek Catholic Cathedral of St. John the Baptist. Not far from this is the Orthodox Cathedral of St. Alexander Nevsky, and tucked into the Old Town near the square is the Orthodox Jewish Synagogue. On the street you may hear Slovak, Hungarian, and Rusyn spoken. In Prešov, one quickly begins to understand the wonderfully multicultural nature of eastern Slovakia. And don’t overlook the little side street called Florian Street because here you’ll find the amazing “Croatia” ice cream shop with its shop window open onto the pedestrian-only walkway. You’ll visit there more than once. After ice cream, just cross the street to enjoy a steaming coffee or a cold beer on the outdoor patio and enjoy people-watching. From your university dorm to the main square is a comfortable walk of about 10 minutes—and there is sufficient free time built into the busy Studium schedule for you to enjoy all of this.
The Greek Catholic Cathedral of St. John the Baptist

Just across the street from your dorm is perhaps the most beloved and most frequently visited spot for Studium participants—the Ballada coffee shop. This is a cozy place, with an intimate feel both downstairs and upstairs, its walls lined with bookshelves filled with books, including books about Carpatho-Rusyns. Or sit outside in late afternoon or into the evening and relax with new friends over coffee, tea, or the ubiquitous icy beer. Wireless Internet there also draws students with their laptops. Next to the Ballada is a small grocery store with the basic necessities such as milk, yogurt, juices, fruit, chocolate, and some baked goods, and yet another shop with school supplies. At the university’s main building, you’ll find a small shop with university-related souvenirs, including T-shirts, mugs, caps, and other memorabilia.

In the next piece, we’ll describe the dorm, the cafeteria, and what is on the docket for this coming summer’s classes and excursions. 

The best ice cream shop, located on Florian Street
Written by:  Patricia Krafcik -